Almost every historical paper will require a bibliography, and unless otherwise directed, you should use a works-consulted bibliography. [“Works consulted” simply means that all relevant and appropriate sources used should be included, even if not actually cited in the paper.]

Historians use Turabian or the Chicago Manual of Style, both of which provide guidelines for the format of the bibliographic citations. See the excellent Turabian/Chicago Manual of Styleonline guides (for print and electronic resources) prepared by the UMW Library staff by clicking here.

Basic procedures include:

  • Alphabetizing your list by the authors’ last names.
  • Indenting the second and following lines of each source.
  • Single-spacing within a source, but double-spacing between sources.
  • Multiple works by the same author uses his/her name in the first entry, and an eight-score underline (“________”) for her/his name in the following source citations.

See the links below for more information about how to use annotated bibliographies correctly and how to tell the difference between a scholarly journal and popular magazine articles.

How to Annotate

Annotated Examples

Scholarly vs. Popular

Citation Guide