Political Science and International Affairs
Pi Sigma Alpha Induction
The UMW chapter of Pi Sigma Alpha (PSA), the Political Science and International Affairs scholastic honorary society, will induct new and returning members on Wednesday, 13 April, at
4pm in Lee 411. A reception will follow the ceremony. Juniors and seniors are eligible for induction if they have a grade point average of at least 3.0 overall, and a 3.2 in upper level courses (with at least 12 credit hours in upper level political science courses).
Additional Seminars in Political Science, Fall 2016
PSCI 471 – US Constitutional Reform PSCI 471 – US Civil Military Relations PSCI 471 -Weapons of Mass Destruction PSCI 471 – Gender and Development
Additional Related Field Courses in International Affairs, Fall 2016
ECON 485 – Economics of Multinational Corporations
ECON 488 – Economics of Emerging Markets
GEOG 490 -Policing the Planet
HIST 300 – British History
HIST 300 -Small Wars
HIST 300- From Mongols to Ottomans
RELG 231 – Sufism
RELG 231 – Islam and the West
PSCI 471 – US Civil Military Relations PSCI 471 – Weapons of Mass Destruction PSCI 471 -Gender and Development
Undergraduate Research Funds
Thinking of completing an independent study project next year? The University has undergraduate research funds available for this purpose. These funds can be utilized for any research related activities associated with the independent study project, including travel, material s acquisition, and photo-copying.
Departmental majors have effectively utilized these funds in recent years in exciting and academically challenging ways.
- Girard Bucello was awarded research funds in pursuit of his Senior Honors Thesis, supervised by Professor Kramer, “The Evolution of the European Security Community: A Case Study of the Political Relationship Between the Baltic States and Euro Atlantic Security Institutions.” In Fall 2015, Girard to conducted interviewswith designated officials and analysts in Estonia, especially at the Estonian Defense College in Tallinn. In Spring 2016 he conducted respective interviews in Brussels, Belgium, especially at NATO Headquarters and associated think tanks.
- Alex Obolensky and Emily Lowrie received grants to do an analytics project predicting propensity to donate money to political candidates.
Undergraduate Research Projects (URES) Students undertake URES projects to assist professors in their research. This year, Professor Rob Barr worked with two URES students, Cait Cobb and Marina Castro Meirelles, to explore the political dynamics of proposed parks, both past and present.
Departmental Majors News
Girard Bucello, IA major and President, UMW Pi Sigma Alpha, presented his honors thesis, “Trouble with the Neighbors: The Baltic States’ Perspective on Security after the Annexation of Crimea,” at the 2016 Pi Sigma Alpha National Student Conference, m Washington, D.C.
UMW has an academic exchange with Lingnan University in Hong Kong. Information about Lingnan University can be found at its home page: www.LN.edu.hk. Information about the exchange program can be found at
For more information, see the Center for International Education in Lee Hall, Rm 435.
Professor John M. Kramer
Jack Kramer, presented his paper “The Quest for Energy Security in Central and Eastern Europe,” at the Annual Meeting of the American Slavic Association, November 17-19, 2015, Philadelphia, Pa.
Professor Elizabeth F. Larus
Elizabeth F. Larus, Professor, was awarded a Taiwan Fellowship in spring 2015 to conduct research in China and Taiwan. She presented her findings in lectures at universities throughout Taiwan and to its Ministry of Foreign Affairs. She published her analytical essay “Relations with Taiwan After the Nine in-One Elections,” in China Analysis, a publication of the European Council on Foreign Relations.
Dr. Larus presented versions of her paper “US Rebalance to Asia and China-US-Taiwan Relations,” at the AAS-in-Asia conference in Taipei in June 2015 and at the American Political Science Association meeting in San Francisco in September 2015. In fall 2015, she participated in workshops on Taiwan’s 2016 presidential and legislative elections at the Office of Director of National Intelligence and to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Policy) at CNA China Studies Division. Professor Larus presented her paper “Alliances and Sea Power in the Asia-Pacific at the World Society Foundation conference in Tucson in spring 2016.
Her article “China Assesses the US Rebalance to Asia: Implications for US-China Relations,” is forthcoming in TEKA Komisji Politologii i Stosunk6w Mif!dzynarodowych Oddzial PAN w Lublinie [Commission of Political Science and International Affairs].
Stephen J. Farnsworth
Stephen Farnsworth, professor of political science and director of the university’s Center for Leadership and Media Studies, is the author of two research articles, “Virginia Voters and Decentralized Governmental Power: Federal Frustration and State Satisfaction,” published in the Virginia Social Science Journal, and “Spinner-in-chief: How presidents shape the news,” published in Limes, the Italian Journal of Geopolitics. Dr. Farnsworth also presented two research papers on the US presidency at political science conferences and published two opnion columns on Virginia politics in “The Fix” blog of the Washington Post. He also was co-author, with Ellen O’Brien, a senior political science major, of a column published in the Richmond Times-Dispatch regarding the utility of having police officers use body cameras.
Professor Jason W. Davidson
Professor Davidson’s article (co-authored with the University of Genoa’s Fabrizio Coticchia) “The Limits of Radical Parties in Coalition Foreign Policy: Italy, Hijacking, and the Extremity Hypothesis” is forthcoming in the peer-reviewed journal, Foreign Policy Analysis. Professor Davidson recently presented on a three person expert panel at the University of Indiana’s Center on American and Global Security on “The New Cold War?” Professor Davidson will present the papers “Even Unipoles Need Friends: Power, Threat, and the Purpose of Alliances” and (with the University of Genoa’s Fabrizio Coticchia) “Explaining Renzi’s Foreign Policy: The International Effects of Domestic Politics” at the International Studies Association’s annual conference in Atlanta, Georgia, March 17-20, 2016.
Professor Rosalyn Cooperman
Rosalyn Cooperman, Associate Professor of Political Science, is serving as co-Principal Investigator for the 2016 Convention Delegate Study, a survey of delegates to the Democratic and Republican national conventions, with Gregory Shufeldt, University of Alabama, Little Rock, and Kimberly Conger, University of Cincinnati. Cooperman and Shufeldt delivered a paper, “Group Commitment among Republican Factions: A Perspective from National Convention Delegates,” at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Southern Political Science Association in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
“Teaching Race and Revolution: Doing Justice to Women’s Roles in the Struggle for Civil Rights,” co-authored with UMW Professors Melina Patterson and Jess Rigelhaupt, will appear in the July 2016 issue of P.S. Political Science. The article, which describes the importance of teaching about the Civil Rights Movement with an emphasis on the often overlooked contributions of women as political actors in the Movement, is based on the experience of teaching the UMW FSEM, Race and Revolution.
Professor Cooperman and UMW Political Science alumna, Sandra Sanchez, Development Specialist for the National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health, will deliver a paper, Testing the Undue Burden Standard: The Effect of “Women’s Health” Abortion Restrictions in Virginia and North Dakota,” at the 2016 meeting of the Virginia Social Science Association.
Dr. Cooperman writes regularly about the 2016 US presidential elections and is a contributor to U.S. News and World Report’s Debate Club and Presidential Gender Watch.
Professor Robert Barr
Professor Barr continues to make progress with his book manuscript, The Third Era of Populism in Latin America: Anger and Opportunity. Lynne Rienner Publishers offered a preliminary contract and asked external reviewers to comment on the manuscript. Currently, Dr. Barr is responding to their requests for modest revisions. He also started a new research project investigating the politics of national parks.
Professor Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh, Associate Professor, organized a five-member panel titled “Social Media and Pedagogy of the Middle East” for the 2014 annual conference of the Middle East Studies Association (MESA) in Washington, DC. For this panel, he presented a paper titled “Teaching Social Media and Middle East Politics.” Professor Singh’s article “The Lyrics Don’t Matter: Addressing Language Barriers and Social Media in the Middle East Studies Classroom” subsequently appeared in Issues in Middle East Studies (April2015).
In February-March 2015, Professor Singh served as the external evaluator for the National Democratic Institute’s two-year-long “Promoting the Effective Participation of Political Parties and Political Coalitions” program in Afghanistan. He designed the evaluation methodology and conducted 37 in-country interviews to produce the program’s comprehensive final report. In addition to service as a manuscript referee for the UK -based Journal of Global Analysis, Professor Singh serves on the Board of Directors of the Northern Virginia Conservation Trust, a non-profit land conservation organization.
Professor Emile Lester
Emile Lester is currently working on his book on liberal political thought and “The Presidencies of Franklin Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy” to be published by University of Michigan Press. His chapter, “Is Democracy for Religion in Public Schools Possible?” will be published this year in the Oxford University Handbook on Religion and Public Education.
His chapter, “Religion and Education in the United States” will appear in Religion and Nationhood: Insider and outsider perspectives on Religion Education in England (Mohr Siebeck, 2016). He will present two papers at the Midwestern Political Science Association Annual Conference in April 2016 entitled “The Two New Deals of Franklin Roosevelt,” and “The Fragility of John F. Kennedy’s Liberalism.”
Professor Surupa Gupta
Surupa Gupta, Associate Professor, was on sabbatical leave from teaching in 2015-2016. She is spending her sabbatical conducting research in Washington, DC and in India.
Professor Chad Murphy
Chad Murphy, Assistant Professor, wrote two book reviews published in the Journal of Politics, presented a paper on GOTV at the Analyst Institute in August 2015, and will present a paper at the Virginia Humanities Conference in April 2016.
Girard Bucello Presents Honors Research at National Conference
University of Mary Washington senior Girard Bucello is doing an honors project with the Department of Political Science and International Affairs this semester on Eastern European politics (under the direction of Professor Jack Kramer). He presented his research on Feb. 13 at the Pi Sigma Alpha National Undergraduate Research Conference in Washington, DC. He is the only student from UMW selected for this conference this year. His paper is titled “Trouble with the Neighbors: The Baltic States’ Perspective on Security after the Annexation of Crimea.”
Girard is one of only about 100 students selected to present his research at the conference, sponsored by the national political science honor society.
Joe Dolan is interning this semester with Virginia Del. Mark Keam (D-Fairfax)
James Sink interned last semester with the re-election campaign of Virginia Sen. Bryce Reeves (R-Spotsylvania).
Caitlin Turner-Lafving interned for Congressman Elijah Cummings
Marlaina Astorino interned for Sen. Bryce Reeves
Shayna Buchin interned for Autism Speaks
John Karellas interned for Virginia Sen. Bryce Reeves in Fall ’15 and Autism Speaks in Spring ’16
Christian Hughes interned for Obsidian Solutions Group
Stuart Penninger interned for Sen. Richard Stuart
Governor Appoints Erik Johnston as Deputy Policy Director
Erik Johnston ’03 has been named deputy policy director for the governor. Erik was a double major in political science and international affairs at UMW, where he won the Colgate Darden Award as the highest-ranked graduate in 2003. Erik Johnston was also a national runner-up in the Pi Sigma Alpha Honor Society Best Undergraduate Course Paper competition during his time at UMW. He is one of nine Mary Washington political science students recognized for outstanding writing and research in that national contest — more than any other university in the nation. He has been working as director of government affairs for the Virginia Association of Counties in Richmond. In addition to his UMW degrees, Erik also holds a Master’s of Public Administration from Virginia Tech.
Rose Likens, International Affairs 1980, and former Ambassador to El Salvador and former Director of the US Foreign Service Institute, is Ambassador to Peru
Zachary Wineburg is pursuing a master’s at the Kennedy School, Harvard University
Justin Simeone is enrolled at Georgetown University Law Center and is a Ph.D. candidate at Princeton University
Brian Dempsey is enrolled in the Ph.D. program with full funding at Northwestern University
Beth Kendall is a student at University of Richmond law school.
Ally Blanc attends law school in Massachusetts.
Monique DeZarn attends the London School of Economics
Christopher Williams, is Adjunct Professor of Political Science at the University of North Texas
Theophe Love in enrolled in the Law School at the University of Virginia
Chapin Fausel attends the University of Kentucky law school
Michael Littlejohn attends the Charlotte School of Law
Chris Blough is enrolled in the Master’s Program at USC in Public Planning
Sarah Payne is enrolled in the John Marshall Law School
Erin Perugini is pursuing a graduate degree at American University
Marija Ozolins is a student at Boston College Law School
Kate Johnson was promoted to Senior Policy Coordinator at Autism Speaks
Andrew Lowndon is enrolled at Duke Law School
Anna Boning is attending the Charleston (SC) School of Law.
Sandra Sanchez is going to graduate school at GMU to get a Master’s in Political Science and is working for the National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health
Sacha Brenac is an intel analyst with Cydecor, a Defense Contractor
Christian Perkins is an analyst at Cydecor
Nicole Tardif is working in the Washington office of US Rep. Barbara Comstock (R-Fairfax)
Ben Hermerding is working in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth in Richmond
Patrick Reynolds has been working on the Hillary Clinton presidential campaign.
Benjamin Harris has been working on the Bernie Sanders presidential campaign.
Mark Finney is assistant professor of mass communication at Emory & Henry College.
Zach Wineburg is working in the Washington office of Google.
Tom Allison is the research director of Young Invincibles, a political research group focusing on issues of particular importance to young adults.
Sam Azzarelli was hired as a Legislative Aide to Sen. Bryce Reeves
Mariah Young was hired to do communications for the AFL-CIO
Lauren Castellano was hired by GOPAC and then promoted to Events Coordinator
Ashley Nixon was hired to be the Legislative Aide for Sen. David Suetterlein
Meghan Hobbs is Special Assistant to the Secretary of Agriculture and Forestry at Office of Governor Terrence R. McAuliff
Thomas Bowman is working State Senator Surovel
Nick DeSarno is Manager, Grassroots and Advocacy, ADPAC at American Dental Association
Kelley Hudak is the Director of Conservative Coalitions and State Outreach for the Republican Study Committee
Leah Kieff is Community and Organizational Development Consultant at Peace Corps
Stacy Whitehouse is Scheduler and Officer Manager for Rep. Rob Wittman (VA-01) at U.S. House of Representatives
Aisstata Traore is Grants Manager at Rwanda Ventures
Hanna Molofsky is Special Events Coordinator at Smithsonian Institution, National Postal Museum
Kate Miceli is a Fellow at Wendy Davis Campaign
Alex Olah is Government Affairs Assistant at The Keelen Group, LLC
Sarah Alvarez is program assistant with Social Impact, an international development consulting firm in Arlington, VA
Michele Alexander is Administrative Coordinator for Strategic Development and Communications, Management Sciences for Health
Kelsey Coates is a Social Enterprise Fellow at Gray Matters Capital
Aida Dedajic is Administrative Assistant for the General Federation of Women’s Clubs
Brian DeMott is a law clerk with the Delaware Office of the Public Defender
Prarthana Gurung is Executive Assistant at Adhikaar for Human Rights and Social Justice
Nicole Halloran is Assistant Professor of Italian at George Mason University
Megan McCrum is Legislative Assistant and Academy Program Director at National Right to Life Committee
Samantha Miller is an Account Executive with Banana Boat/Hawaiian Tropic/Wet Ones – Grey Group
Joe Oschrin is a paralegal at Kasowitz, Benson, Torres & Friedman, LLP
Jacklyn Rose is P.E. Teacher and Assistant Athletic Director, Tandem Friends School
Laura Zamperini is Foreign Operations Specialist, Department of Justice
Nadine Zaatar works for the US State Department
Alex Olah works in Congressman Mike McIntyre’s office
Annie Morris was promoted to Special Assistant for Legislative Affairs and Policy Development at Gov. McDonnell’s office
Brianna Gavigan is doing a fellowship with the Greater New Haven Community Loan Fund
Molly McCarthy works for Price Waterhouse Cooper
Kelley Hudak is working for CRC Public Relations
Sophie Barber was a field coordinator for Romney’s campaign and is the Deputy Political Director for Rob Bell’s VA Attorney General Campaign
Kasey Nabal served as a session aide for Bryce Reeves
KJ Adler completed her stint with the Peace Corps in Mali
Jennifer Taylor Boussuge is Senior Vice President and Managing Director of Global Treasury Sales at Bank of America in London
Heidi Meredith and Megan Linn work for the FBI
Kendall Carty is working for Governor Robert F. McDonell in the Department of Education
Carrie Mitchell is working for the Department of Defense
Kelley Hudak works for CRC Public Relations Firm
Leah Kieff is working as an associate at Guggenheim Securities, LLC
Nick Jacobs is attending Governor’s School in Stafford
Ashley Nixon works in the office of VA State Senator Bryce Reeves
Bobby Durrette is Founder of D&D Brewery, Lodge and Restaurant
Tatiana Faramarzi is Client Communications Coordinator for La Ceiba Microfinance Institution
Krystal Jackson is a HR/Recruiting Coordinator at PATH
Bethany Nelson is a Visa Clerk at CGI Federal
Jay Sinha is an Associate Attorney with LeClairRyan
Catherine Stewart is a MBA/MPP Student at Fuqua School of Business
Kristen Tymeson is a Policy Advisor at the Department of State for Secretary’s Office of Global Women’s Issues
Julie Viragh is a Campaign Scheduler/Fundraising Coordinator for Donner for Senate
Elizabeth Weaver is a Development Assistant for Flatirons Habitat for Humanity
Kate Lulfs Ehrle is Director of Business Development at Cask LLC.
Richard Ehrle is a senior counter-intelligence specialist with the US Navy.
Stephen Premo is the Director of University of Minnesota Housing Clinic at the University of Minnesota Law School.
Kristin Howe is an analyst (Homeland Security, Justice, and Public Safety) at Deltek.
Jessica Wells is the Director of Membership Programs at the Naval Postgraduate School Foundation
James Schroll is a Deputy Clerk at the Arlington Circuit Court
Anne Kringen is a Doctoral Research Assistant at Texas State University
Kenneth Scheiber is a Teacher at St. Mary’s-Ryken High School
Sarah B. Smith is a Regional Development Officer (Central Region) at American’s for Prosperity
Sydney McClure is a Senior Consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton
Emily Cavan Lynch is an Intersectional Field Communications Officer for Doctors Without Borders
Chris Winslow is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Mary Washington
Andrew Wright is a Legislative Assistant for Senator Phillip Puckett
Katie Leesman is an Attorney for Van Ness Feldman
Sarah Campbell is a Project Manager at TASC
Madina Ahmadzai is a Marketing Assistant at Quality Matters
Erin Albright is an Anti-Trafficking Coordinator for the International Institute of New England
Michelle Alexander is a Fulbright Fellow with the Fulbright Program in Ukraine
Tom Allison is a Special Projects Coordinator for Media Matters for America
Allessandra Askins is a Project coordinator at True Communications, Inc.
Jennifer Bell is a Senior Association Coordinator at SmithBucklin
Michael Behrens is an Associate Investigator at USIS
Alison Berry is a Manager of State and Local Government Affairs for the National Apartment Association
Miklos Bodnar is a Research Analyst at DARPA
Valerie Bradley is Director of Special Projects at Earthcare Technologies, Inc.
Director of Special Projects at Earthcare Technologies, Inc.
Director of Special Projects at Earthcare Technologies, Inc.
Director of Special Projects at Earthcare Technologies, Inc.
Director of Special Projects at Earthcare Technologies, Inc.
Bradd Buckingham is a Senior Market Research Analyst at Lockheed Martin Logistics and Sustainment
Alena Callaghan is a Web Marketing Manager at Appian Corporation
Kate Carlucci is a Governmental Affairs Coordinator – Iowa League of Cities
Brian Cooney is a Senior Consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton
Victoria Cooney is a Consultant at ATIC
Matthew Coulter is a Corporate Accounts Manager at Pennsylvania Lottery
Lauren Decot is Compliance Associate for the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee
Brady Deremer is an Associate at Booz Allen Hamilton
Matt Desjardins is a Fellow (Executive Office of the Mayor, Office of the Chief of Staff) at the Government of the District of Columbia
Chelsea Devening is a Senior Consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton
Monique DeZarn is a Case Assistant at Kirkland and Ellis LLP
Kevin Diana is an Acquisition Team Lead at MRAP Cougar
Chris Dimotsis is a Loan Offier, Portfolio and Asset Management at NCB Capital Impact
Elspeth England is a Law Clerk for the Circuit Court of Alexandria, VA
Pari Farmani is an IWP Consultant at Legal Momentum
Meredith Flynn is a Client Service Representative for MTV Networks
Alissa Genovese is a Program Operations Specialist for the U.S. Department of Justice
Therese Giambona is an Internal Auditor at Western Union
Kathryn Schubert Godburn is theVice President at CRD Associates
Melissa Gonzalez is a Consultant and Program Assistant at Inter-American Development Bank
Stephen Gregg is a Legal Extern at Fox Television
Shaw Gremminger is the Assistant Vice President for Legislative Affairs for the National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems
Michael Hagan Regulatory Paralegal for Strayer University
Kelly Heroman Vincent is the Chief of Staff for AKPD Message and Media
Kevin Hickerson is a Special Education Teacher for Fairfax County Public Schools
Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier is a PhD Researcher for The School of Oriental and African Studies
Ryan Jacobson is a Manager, Data Informatics for Armada Health Care
Susan Jerdonek is an Associate, Development for U.S. Green Building Council
Kory Jessen is a Security Analyst for the Verizon Business
Mikaela Jordan is an Underwriting Trainee at Chubb
Ryan Kailath is an Information Architect for the Freelancers Union
Andrea Keefer is a Budget and Policy Specialist for the Department of Planning and Budget
Kate Kelley is a Public Relations Associate for American Psychological Association
Peter Kelley is a Researcher for Portland Communications
Kira Lanewala, Assistant Manager, Rappahannock Area United Services Board
David Lindsay is an Analyst for Blue Collar Objects
Kathy Loden is a Director of Legislative Operations, Committee on Natural Resources for the U.S. House of Representatives
Kevin Loden is an Associate at Venable LLP
Sarah Lowden Student at New England Law (Boston)
Danielle Mackey is a Freelance Journalist for Periodista Independiente
James Martin is a Division Officer, USS Benfold (DDG 65) for the U.S. Navy
Jenelle Masterson is a Systems Assurance Lead at SAIC
John Messinger is an Attorney for Lehrman Beverage Law, PLLC
Dave Moore is a Consultant at IBG
Amanda Mulhern is a Law Clerk for Harrington Law Offices
Jaenette Murphy is a Transportation Security Specialist, International Operations, Office of Global Strategies for TSA
Michael Nissim-Sabat is a Second Year Student at West Virginia University of College Law
Thomas Openchowski is a Program Assistant at LiveHealthier
Bennet Opitz is a Specialist for the Army National Guard
Brendan Orsinger is a Business Development Analyst for New Breed Logistics
Sean O’Brien is an IT Project Coordinator at the University of Mary Washington
Andrew Painter is an Associate for Walsh Colucci Lubeley Emrich and Walsh, PC
Jessica Paquette is a Legislative Correspondent for the U.S. House of Represenatatives
Raphael Pascale is an Intern for the IMANI Multiculturing Center
Sarah Payne is a Judicial Extern, The Honorable Timothy P. Murphy at the Circuit Court of Cook County
Frank Puleo is a Senior Consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton
Caitlin Quinn is a Contract Specialist for the Defense Logistics Agency
Brandon Robinson is a Projects Manager for the Propane Education and Research Council
Nicholas Ryan is an Assistant Director of Debate for Liberty University
Kaycee Stahl is a Research Program Manager for Penn State Applied Research Lab
Amina Shafi is a Senior Asylum Officer for the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
Sarah Simpson is a QA Manager, Business Analyst, and Software Tester at Armedia
Amy Smetana is an Intern for the Latin America Working Group
Andrew Smith is a Legal Assistant at St. John, Bowling, Lawrench and Quagliana, LLP
Jacqueline Snyder is a Meetings and Events Assistant for Associated Builders and Contractors
Stephanie Tait is a Communications Specialist for the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation
Elizabeth Terry Rose is a Curatorial Programs Assistant for Architecture, Design and Engineering at the Library of Congress
Milimo Thindwa is an Advocacy Intern for The Hunger Project
Annie Unger is a Member Support Specialist, Common Application Online – Hobsons
Megan Vaughan-Albert is a Senior Analyst with the Avascent Group
Mary Wagoner is a Special Projects Coordinator for the Arlington County Treasurer’s Office
Katie Webb is a President, Consultant of NC Media Diva
Caroline Wood is a Residency in Social Enterprise (RISE) Fellow at New Sector Alliance – AmeriCorp